What are Walls
The wall is a vertical fence that separates the room from the outside environment or from another room.
The walls are subdivided:
1) depending on the perception of loads – on load-bearing, self-supporting and non-bearing;
2) by the type of material – on stone, wood, walls made of local materials, as well as combined ones
Load-bearing walls are the pillars of the entire structure. After all, it is on them that the whole frame rests. Therefore, a violation of this design can lead to a disastrous result. Redevelopment requires special knowledge and qualifications.
A self-supporting wall is an external enclosing vertical structure that protects the interior of a building from the external environment, rests and transfers its own weight load to the foundation.
Curtain wall – an external wall resting on a ceiling within one floor with a floor height of no more than 6 m. (at a higher floor height, these walls are self-supporting) and protecting the building from the outside from the external environment.
Wood is a traditional material for the walls of low-rise buildings. The most comfortable in terms of sanitary and hygienic requirements are cobbled walls and chopped walls made of coniferous trees. Their disadvantages are sedimentary deformation in the first 1.5–2 years and low fire resistance.
Frame walls are justified in the presence of lumber and effective insulation. Note that frame walls do not require massive foundations, unlike chopped ones, they do not give post-construction deformations. The fire resistance and solidity of frame walls is increased when facing with bricks.
It is advisable to harvest logs in winter, since wood is less prone to decay, warping during drying. The moisture content of the wood should be 80–90%. The logs should be free of cracks, rot, not affected by the bark beetle and fungus. The quality of the material can be determined by blowing the butt of an ax, a clear and clear sound indicates good quality. Wooden houses are built with a height of no more than two floors.
By design, wooden walls of heated buildings are divided into chopped from logs or beams, frame, panel board and frame-panel board.
Chopped log walls
Chopped log walls are a structure of logs stacked on top of each other in horizontal rows and connected at the corners by cuts. The thickness of the logs in the upper cut for the outer walls of heated buildings located in the central zone of Russia is 22 cm, in the northern and northeastern regions of 24-26 cm. The diameter of the logs is chosen the same, with the difference between the upper and lower cuts no more than 3 cm.
Chopped log walls are distinguished by high strength and good heat-shielding qualities, and durability under favorable operating conditions. Processing logs and erecting walls is a laborious process that requires a lot of wood.
Cobblestone walls are erected from horizontally laid beams. The use of beams makes it possible to exclude manual processing of logs, cutting of mates of corners, abutments of walls and proceed to mechanized procurement of wall elements. The beams for the walls are harvested at the factory with all cuttings for mates and sockets for spikes. Compared to log houses, the labor intensity of the construction of block houses is much less, the consumption of wood is reduced. Unlike log walls, cobbled walls are assembled immediately on ready-made foundations.
An effective protection of cobbled walls from atmospheric influences is cladding with boards or brick cladding, which protects the walls from moisture, increases heat protection, reduces the effect of wind, and fire resistance increases with brick wall cladding. The brick cladding must be installed with a gap from the cobbled walls at a distance of 5–7 cm, at the bottom and top of the brick cladding to leave air vents to ensure ventilation.
It is recommended that log and cobbled walls be sheathed or veneered no earlier than 1–1.5 years after construction (after their complete settlement).
Frame walls require less wood than log or cobbled walls, are less labor intensive and therefore more economical. The basis of the frame walls is a load-bearing wooden frame, sheathed on both sides with sheet or molded materials. Frame walls, due to their lightness, are practically not subject to shrinkage, which allows them to be sheathed or veneered immediately after construction.
Frame walls must be protected from atmospheric moisture by performing external cladding with overlapping vertical and horizontal joints and arranging drains from protruding wall elements. Protection against water vapor is provided by arranging a vapor barrier made of synthetic film, glassine or using other types of vapor barrier, laying them between the inner lining and insulation.
Insulation of frame walls is carried out using mineral and organic materials with a density of up to 500-600 kg / m. Mineral, glass wool slabs, expanded polystyrene are effective modern insulation materials, since they are fire resistant, lightweight, not subject to decay, exposure to and penetration of bacteria, fungi, and are not destroyed by rodents. Organic heaters are susceptible to destruction by rodents, combustible, prone to decay, in addition, before backfilling, they must be treated with an antiseptic and mixed before use with a mineral binder – cement, lime, gypsum, then laid in a wet state in layers of 15-20 cm, tamping. The materials for backfill are: pumice, sawdust, gilak, shavings, peat and others, which are significantly inferior in their properties to modern mineral insulation.
Uniform walls are made of ordinary hollow or lightweight building bricks. In heterogeneous, lightweight walls, part of the brickwork was replaced by the thickness of the wall with thermal insulation tiles and an air gap.
Walls are erected with a thickness of 1/2, 1, 11/2, 2, 21/2, 3 bricks and more, given the thickness of vertical joints equal to 10 mm, brick walls have a thickness of 120, 250, 380, 510, 640, 770, respectively mm and more. The thickness of the horizontal joints is taken as 12 mm, then the height of 13 rows of masonry should be 1 m.
In a two-row masonry system, the stitch rows alternate with spoon rows. The transverse joints in this system overlap by 1/4 brick, and the longitudinal joints by 1/2 brick.
The six-row system involves the alternation of five spoon rows with one butt row. In each spoon row, the transverse vertical seams are tied in half a brick, the longitudinal vertical seams formed by the spoons are tied with poke rows through five spoon rows.
The disadvantage of ordinary solid brick, clay or silicate, is its high volumetric weight and, therefore, high thermal conductivity.
Lightweight brick walls
Lightweight brick walls, in which the brick is partially freed from its unusual heat-insulating functions, by replacing part of the masonry with less heat-conducting materials, can significantly reduce the consumption of bricks, thereby increasing material savings.
Lightweight brick walls are divided into 2 groups. The first group includes structures consisting of two thin longitudinal brick walls, between which a thermal insulation material is laid, the second group includes structures consisting of one brick wall insulated with thermal insulation plates.
Brick walls with insulation from thermal insulation panels
Brick walls with insulation made of heat-insulating panels consist of a supporting part – masonry, the thickness of which is determined only from the conditions of strength and stability of the wall, and a heat-insulating part – foam concrete, gypsum or gypsum slag panels.