roof types

Roof Types

The roof of a modern home is not just a covering for it, existing in order to protect it from rain, snow and sunlight. The roof is a kind of continuation of the house in architectural terms, thanks to which its general appearance is formed. Moreover, the general comfort of the house depends on what type of roof is installed on the house.

Although, the roof should be not only beautiful, but also reliable. In principle, there are many types of roofs for private houses, but the most common are only a few of them, which will be discussed in this article.
Roofs depending on design features
So, generally speaking, all roofs, in terms of their features, are structurally divided into pitched and flat. Both those and others have a number of advantages and disadvantages.

For example, at present, flat roofs are practically not used in the construction of residential private houses. The reason lies in the fact that a slope of 3 degrees, which has a roof of this type, leads to the fact that precipitation does not “roll off” it well. This means that there is no need to talk about the good reliability of a flat roof.

And in terms of design, a flat roof loses a lot to a pitched roof. Therefore, in most cases, a flat roof is equipped if it is planned to organize any additional space on it, such as a pool, front garden or terrace.

Much more practical in this regard is a pitched roof, which has a number of advantages over a flat roof. A sufficient slope angle helps the roof to clear itself of water and snow, and is generally a more robust structure than a flat roof. Under such a roof, you can easily make an attic or attic.

Despite a number of advantages, the pitched roof also has some disadvantages, which are associated with the high cost of construction and the complexity of its repair during operation.
Attic and non-attic pitched roofs

It is fair to say that the owner of the future home is trying to choose one of several proposed roof options. Those. either an attic type structure or an attic (attic).

The attic-type roof is distinguished by its simplicity of construction, so such a roof can be easily built even on your own. Very often, the slope angle of the attic roof depends on the type of roofing material. In this case, one should take into account both the load that such a roof must hold, and the cost of the building material during its construction.

In addition, this type provides for the possibility of repair without replacing the entire roof. If the choice is made in favor of an attic roof, then it is necessary to immediately determine whether the attic will be used in the future or not. Those. it is on this decision that the choice of the upper ceiling of the attic will depend, which can be either wooden or reinforced concrete.

Another type of roof is the attic. She’s an attic. Its main difference from other types of attic roofs in private houses is that the outer walls in this case will be roof structures. Such a roof is very original, therefore the appearance of the house itself will be very unusual.
And all would be fine, but the working area of ​​the attic space in this case decreases, and the process of erecting a mansard roof is very difficult and it is not easy to cope with it on your own without appropriate experience.
As a rule, the roofless roof has some break, therefore, in order to strengthen it, it is necessary to put wooden supports from the inside. However, with the proper imagination, you can also benefit from this if you sheathe such props with plywood and turn all this into useful cabinets and niches for temporarily unnecessary things.

Varieties of pitched roofs in geometric shapes

In addition, the design features of the roofs can determine the different shapes of the roofs of private houses.

Shed roof

At the moment, the shed roof is considered the simplest and cheapest. This is a flat view of a roof that rests on walls of varying heights. As a result, the roof is tilted in one direction. It is usually most commonly used in the construction of sheds, garages and other outbuildings.

But often it can be seen on country houses. For all its advantages, the main disadvantage of such a roof is that it is impossible to equip an attic in a house with such a roof. And its appearance leaves much to be desired.

Gable roof

A 2-pitched roof is common in villages and small towns. This type of roof has come down to our days since ancient times. As you might guess, such a roof consists of 2 slopes connected to each other with a “ridge”. It is interesting that such slopes are both symmetrical with respect to each other, and differ from each other in the angle of inclination or length.

Under such a roof, you can easily equip an attic or attic. This type of roof can be safely considered the most practical and most common. The portions of the walls of a building that delimit the attic space on either side are called gables.

Hip roof

If instead of gables 2 slopes of a triangular shape are installed, then this roof is called hip roof, and the slopes themselves are called hips. The upper part of the slopes has dormer windows. If we compare this type of roof with the one discussed above, then it is much more difficult to build it.

Therefore, the construction of such a roof should be trusted only by professionals. But the resistance of such roofs to precipitation and strong winds is simply phenomenal.

Half hip roof

The semi-hip type of roof is considered an intermediate link between 2-pitched and hip roofs. The end gables in this case are made in the form of a trapezoid, and their top is covered with half-hips. As a rule, in such roofs on the pediment, you can place a completely full-fledged window, and the half-hips themselves are quite interesting decorative elements.

There is another type of half-hip roof, when the lower part of the pediment is simply overlapped with a slope. This allows you to ensure the correct triangular shape of the remaining part of the pediment, in which the dormer is usually organized. If you judge such a roof by its appearance, then it is of rather great interest to designers.

Hipped roof

The hip roof has another variety, which is called the hipped roof. Structurally, it has 3 or more slopes, converging at one upper point. This type of roof does not have a ridge, moreover, the symmetry of the slopes in relation to each other is simply amazing. If the house has the shape of a regular polygon or square, then it usually uses a hipped roof type.

In terms of wind resistance, this type of roof has proven itself quite well. In addition, from the point of view of design ideas, there are few alternatives to such roofs.

Multi-gable roof

If the building is in the form of a complex polygon, then it is usually covered with a multi-gable roof. Such roofs are very complex structurally due to their complex rafter system. However, with a successful design of such a roof, a very unique structure can be created.

Sloping roof

The types of mansard roofs of private houses often include a broken type of roof. This roof is sometimes referred to as a mansard roof. They have a fairly large angle of inclination of the bend, which makes it possible to more fully use the usable area of ​​the attic in the building.

Dome and tapered roofs

Dome and conical roofs are very rare in private residential buildings. As a rule, these structures are rounded structures, however, they do not cover all the premises of the house, but only its individual elements, which, for example, include round verandas or decorative turrets.

Combined roofs

But the most complex structures are combined types of roofs. In simpler terms, such roofs are combinations of multi-gable, hip, half-hip structures. Despite this, if the cottage has a combined roof, then its very unusual appearance attracts attention, because it has a large number of dormer windows, covered small balconies, as well as open and closed verandas. And all would be fine, but such roofs are not easy to build and maintain in the future.

Be that as it may, but the roofs, regardless of their shape or type, are constantly being improved and supplemented with new elements.

Walls

What are Walls

The wall is a vertical fence that separates the room from the outside environment or from another room.
The walls are subdivided:

1) depending on the perception of loads – on load-bearing, self-supporting and non-bearing;

2) by the type of material – on stone, wood, walls made of local materials, as well as combined ones

Load-bearing walls are the pillars of the entire structure. After all, it is on them that the whole frame rests. Therefore, a violation of this design can lead to a disastrous result. Redevelopment requires special knowledge and qualifications.

A self-supporting wall is an external enclosing vertical structure that protects the interior of a building from the external environment, rests and transfers its own weight load to the foundation.

Curtain wall – an external wall resting on a ceiling within one floor with a floor height of no more than 6 m. (at a higher floor height, these walls are self-supporting) and protecting the building from the outside from the external environment.

Wooden walls

Wood is a traditional material for the walls of low-rise buildings. The most comfortable in terms of sanitary and hygienic requirements are cobbled walls and chopped walls made of coniferous trees. Their disadvantages are sedimentary deformation in the first 1.5–2 years and low fire resistance.

Frame walls are justified in the presence of lumber and effective insulation. Note that frame walls do not require massive foundations, unlike chopped ones, they do not give post-construction deformations. The fire resistance and solidity of frame walls is increased when facing with bricks.

It is advisable to harvest logs in winter, since wood is less prone to decay, warping during drying. The moisture content of the wood should be 80–90%. The logs should be free of cracks, rot, not affected by the bark beetle and fungus. The quality of the material can be determined by blowing the butt of an ax, a clear and clear sound indicates good quality. Wooden houses are built with a height of no more than two floors.

By design, wooden walls of heated buildings are divided into chopped from logs or beams, frame, panel board and frame-panel board.

Chopped log walls

Chopped log walls are a structure of logs stacked on top of each other in horizontal rows and connected at the corners by cuts. The thickness of the logs in the upper cut for the outer walls of heated buildings located in the central zone of Russia is 22 cm, in the northern and northeastern regions of 24-26 cm. The diameter of the logs is chosen the same, with the difference between the upper and lower cuts no more than 3 cm.

Chopped log walls are distinguished by high strength and good heat-shielding qualities, and durability under favorable operating conditions. Processing logs and erecting walls is a laborious process that requires a lot of wood.

Cobbled walls

Cobblestone walls are erected from horizontally laid beams. The use of beams makes it possible to exclude manual processing of logs, cutting of mates of corners, abutments of walls and proceed to mechanized procurement of wall elements. The beams for the walls are harvested at the factory with all cuttings for mates and sockets for spikes. Compared to log houses, the labor intensity of the construction of block houses is much less, the consumption of wood is reduced. Unlike log walls, cobbled walls are assembled immediately on ready-made foundations.

An effective protection of cobbled walls from atmospheric influences is cladding with boards or brick cladding, which protects the walls from moisture, increases heat protection, reduces the effect of wind, and fire resistance increases with brick wall cladding. The brick cladding must be installed with a gap from the cobbled walls at a distance of 5–7 cm, at the bottom and top of the brick cladding to leave air vents to ensure ventilation.

It is recommended that log and cobbled walls be sheathed or veneered no earlier than 1–1.5 years after construction (after their complete settlement).

Frame walls

Frame walls require less wood than log or cobbled walls, are less labor intensive and therefore more economical. The basis of the frame walls is a load-bearing wooden frame, sheathed on both sides with sheet or molded materials. Frame walls, due to their lightness, are practically not subject to shrinkage, which allows them to be sheathed or veneered immediately after construction.

Frame walls must be protected from atmospheric moisture by performing external cladding with overlapping vertical and horizontal joints and arranging drains from protruding wall elements. Protection against water vapor is provided by arranging a vapor barrier made of synthetic film, glassine or using other types of vapor barrier, laying them between the inner lining and insulation.

Insulation of frame walls is carried out using mineral and organic materials with a density of up to 500-600 kg / m. Mineral, glass wool slabs, expanded polystyrene are effective modern insulation materials, since they are fire resistant, lightweight, not subject to decay, exposure to and penetration of bacteria, fungi, and are not destroyed by rodents. Organic heaters are susceptible to destruction by rodents, combustible, prone to decay, in addition, before backfilling, they must be treated with an antiseptic and mixed before use with a mineral binder – cement, lime, gypsum, then laid in a wet state in layers of 15-20 cm, tamping. The materials for backfill are: pumice, sawdust, gilak, shavings, peat and others, which are significantly inferior in their properties to modern mineral insulation.

Stone walls

Uniform walls are made of ordinary hollow or lightweight building bricks. In heterogeneous, lightweight walls, part of the brickwork was replaced by the thickness of the wall with thermal insulation tiles and an air gap.

Walls are erected with a thickness of 1/2, 1, 11/2, 2, 21/2, 3 bricks and more, given the thickness of vertical joints equal to 10 mm, brick walls have a thickness of 120, 250, 380, 510, 640, 770, respectively mm and more. The thickness of the horizontal joints is taken as 12 mm, then the height of 13 rows of masonry should be 1 m.

In a two-row masonry system, the stitch rows alternate with spoon rows. The transverse joints in this system overlap by 1/4 brick, and the longitudinal joints by 1/2 brick.

The six-row system involves the alternation of five spoon rows with one butt row. In each spoon row, the transverse vertical seams are tied in half a brick, the longitudinal vertical seams formed by the spoons are tied with poke rows through five spoon rows.

The disadvantage of ordinary solid brick, clay or silicate, is its high volumetric weight and, therefore, high thermal conductivity.

Lightweight brick walls

Lightweight brick walls, in which the brick is partially freed from its unusual heat-insulating functions, by replacing part of the masonry with less heat-conducting materials, can significantly reduce the consumption of bricks, thereby increasing material savings.
Lightweight brick walls are divided into 2 groups. The first group includes structures consisting of two thin longitudinal brick walls, between which a thermal insulation material is laid, the second group includes structures consisting of one brick wall insulated with thermal insulation plates.
Brick walls with insulation from thermal insulation panels

Brick walls with insulation made of heat-insulating panels consist of a supporting part – masonry, the thickness of which is determined only from the conditions of strength and stability of the wall, and a heat-insulating part – foam concrete, gypsum or gypsum slag panels.

Foundations

Types of Foundations for Building a Private House


The construction of a private house requires a lot of time and money; it is very important to take into account every detail in its design, especially when arranging the foundation. After all, the reliability and durability of the house depends on him. If the choice of the foundation for the house and its construction are made incorrectly, this will cause a lot of problems in the future, which are very difficult to solve. In the world of construction, there are various types of foundations, but you should not choose at all on the advice of neighbors and friends – it will not be superfluous to consult a specialist in this area.

If the foundation will be built under a brick house, then when choosing it, it is important to take into account the large weight of the walls. Otherwise, the constructed foundation, which cannot withstand high loads, will soon cause serious problems, cracks will appear on the walls and then the building may collapse.That is why it is very important to choose the right foundation that can withstand a lot of weight. They are chosen from slab, strip, columnar and pile foundations. Each of them has its own requirements that must be taken into account. Only if they are observed, it is possible to build a high-quality and reliable foundation for housing construction.

That is why it is very important to choose the right foundation that can withstand a lot of weight. They are chosen from slab, strip, columnar and pile foundations. Each of them has its own requirements that must be taken into account. Only if they are observed, it is possible to build a high-quality and reliable foundation for housing construction.

What is considered when choosing a foundation

The definition of a foundation states that it is the load-bearing part of the structure on which the walls rest. It can also be said that the foundation is the main component of the house that affects its durability. And if the foundation is cracked, it means that the choice or construction was wrong.

Cracks will inevitably move to the walls, which will provoke an emergency condition of the whole house. To avoid this, it is necessary to take into account all the factors that affect the strength and durability of the foundation during its construction.

Soil properties. When choosing the types of foundations for a private house, it is the soil that is taken as the main determining factor. Therefore, before starting construction, it is necessary to order geological studies, during which soil samples will be taken by geologists. After studying the composition of the soil, the following will be revealed: the level of groundwater depending on the season, heaving, the possibility of subsidence. It is imperative to take into account the seismicity of the construction area.

Foundation loads. This is also an equally important factor when choosing a foundation. The load depends on the weight of the whole house as a whole (load-bearing walls, partitions, roofing and even furniture, which will be furnished with housing). It is also necessary to take into account the supporting area of ​​the foundation, the pressure on the ground depends on it. The bearing area is defined as the quotient of the weight per bearing area. The lower the pressure, the better, but increasing the width of the foundation entails additional costs.

Depth of placement. When choosing the depth of the laying, it is necessary to take into account the composition of the soil and its moisture content, the maximum negative temperatures in the winter season, the level of groundwater. Swelling of the soil in winter is the main danger for the foundation, because the frozen soil begins to increase in volume, thereby pushing it up. But the greatest danger is that this happens unevenly in different places, which can lead to a break in the foundation. Good waterproofing and drainage system will eliminate cracking and reduce subsidence.

The quality of the material. The main component of the foundation is cement. When choosing it, it is necessary to take into account the shelf life and conditions of storage, as well as the brand that must correspond to the field of application.

In addition to the above factors, one should also take into account the presence of nearby buildings and man-made hazards. Erection of a new foundation increases the load on the ground, which can negatively affect buildings standing nearby. An important factor is the choice of a specialist who will help you choose the type of foundation, taking into account all the requirements and design it correctly.

Types of foundations for a private house

Each of the types of foundation differs in construction technology, characteristics, conditions of use. For residential construction, the following types of foundations for a private house are usually used:

pile;
tape;
slab;
columnar.

Strip foundation: what is its difference

The design consists of tapes dug into the ground, they take on all the load of the load-bearing elements of the house.

The depth of the strip foundation is determined depending on the materials from which it is being built. The device of the strip foundation for a private house is slightly different depending on the type of the tape itself. There are two main types of strip foundations: monolithic and prefabricated. The first design option is erected immediately on the site, the second is assembled from reinforced concrete blocks. They are produced in factories, then they are brought to the construction site and, with the help of specialized equipment, a prefabricated strip foundation is erected.

A monolithic strip foundation is a reinforced reinforced concrete structure, in terms of reliability and durability it surpasses the prefabricated type, since it is more resistant to deforming loads and practically does not undergo erosion by groundwater.

The prefabricated type of strip foundation is erected not only from blocks, but also from rubble stone – rubble concrete (consists of concrete and boulders). Also, a brick foundation belongs to the prefabricated type; it is used for the construction of houses of no more than five floors.

Strip foundations are classified into two types according to the depth of laying: shallow and deep structures. The sole of shallow strip foundations is placed above the level of freezing of the soil – at a distance of 30–80 cm from its surface. Deep foundations are deepened by 1.5–2 m, that is, the sole is located below the freezing line of the earth.

Tape-type shallow foundations are suitable for the construction of houses of no more than two floors, provided that the soil at the construction site is not prone to heaving. But deep foundations can be used in soils prone to thermal expansion.

The main advantage of strip foundations can be called the relatively low construction costs, with the exception of a prefabricated structure of foundation blocks, since their cost is quite impressive.

Slab foundation for the house

A monolithic slab is a foundation that occupies the entire area of ​​the house. This type of structure is quite costly, because a lot of concrete and reinforcement will be needed for construction, however, large investments are justified by the high reliability of the slab in problem soils.

A monolithic slab is classified as a floating foundation, all loads on it are distributed evenly, which completely eliminates any deformations in a soil prone to horizontal displacement or heaving.

Features of construction: a pit of the required size is pulled out, the base is prepared, a reinforced belt is equipped, after which it is filled with a solution. The slab does not have a large thickness, but it has a fairly good bearing capacity and high strength characteristics.

The thickness of the monolithic slab is made from 30 to 100 cm, depending on the mass of the future house. On such a foundation, it is possible to build heavy structures up to five floors, as well as houses of complex construction and long length. The technology of erecting a monolithic slab as a foundation allows expansion joints to be made around its perimeter, due to which the strength and reliability of the structure increases.

The disadvantage here is that once the slab has been laid, the basement cannot be built. However, this disadvantage can be compensated for by the construction of a basement floor. The foundation is perfect if housing construction will take place on marshy or muddy soil, as well as on artificially formed embankments.

Pile foundation

Pile foundations used in residential construction are classified into three types: driven, screw and bored piles. Driven pile construction is used for the construction of heavy concrete and brick houses in problem ground. Driven piles are supports with a length of 5 to 12 m, they are resistant to heavy loads, and in terms of reliability and strength, they practically have no analogues.

For arranging the foundation on bored piles, concreting of wells drilled in the ground will be required. In turn, bored piles are divided into handicraft and industrial elements. The latter are mounted using a mobile drilling rig, and their performance characteristics are almost identical to the driven ones. Handicraft piles (they are analogs of a columnar foundation) imply installation to a depth of 2 to 3 m using hand drills.

Screw piles with a length of 3 to 8 meters are immersed in the ground by screwing. Lightweight wooden structures are built on such foundations – frame houses, cottages made of timber or rounded logs. Foundations on screw piles are chosen when it is necessary to build a house in a short time.

The installation of piles takes several days and about three more days for their strapping.

For bored and driven piles, a slab or tape grillage made of concrete is used for strapping, the screw supports are tied with a grillage from a bar or I-beam, a channel.

Column foundation

The construction of a columnar foundation involves the distribution of supports at a distance of 2-3 m from each other along the entire perimeter of the future house, the pillars are tied with a grillage. The columnar foundation, like the strip foundation, is divided into prefabricated and monolithic. The latter is a concreted asbestos-cement pipe. Prefabricated is erected from blocks or bricks.

The columnar foundation is tied with a grillage from an I-beam or bar. The strapping is necessary to combine the pillars into a single structure, which allows you to evenly distribute the load emanating from the house and prevent them from tipping over.

The columnar foundation is used for the construction of frame houses and other light buildings up to two floors in height. The bearing capacity of a columnar foundation cannot withstand heavy brick and concrete houses. In addition, this type of foundation is not suitable for erection in heaving and moving soils.

Insulation and waterproofing of the foundation

Thermal insulation and waterproofing of the foundation for the construction of private housing should be given special attention. Such work is very important, since the thermal characteristics, a comfortable microclimate in the house and the durability of the building depend on them.

Waterproofing is necessary for any type of foundation because it is constantly exposed to groundwater and melt water. Most often, roll-up glued and liquid coating waterproofing is chosen for protection. The latter includes bitumen-polymer emulsion. When choosing a roll-up waterproofing coating, it is better to give preference to fiberglass, polyester or fiberglass.

For basement insulation they use: penoplex, expanded polystyrene, polyurethane foam, mineral wool, slag, expanded clay.