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The construction of a private house requires a lot of time and money; it is very important to take into account every detail in its design, especially when arranging the foundation. After all, the reliability and durability of the house depends on him. If the choice of the foundation for the house and its construction are made incorrectly, this will cause a lot of problems in the future, which are very difficult to solve. In the world of construction, there are various types of foundations, but you should not choose at all on the advice of neighbors and friends – it will not be superfluous to consult a specialist in this area.
If the foundation will be built under a brick house, then when choosing it, it is important to take into account the large weight of the walls. Otherwise, the constructed foundation, which cannot withstand high loads, will soon cause serious problems, cracks will appear on the walls and then the building may collapse.That is why it is very important to choose the right foundation that can withstand a lot of weight. They are chosen from slab, strip, columnar and pile foundations. Each of them has its own requirements that must be taken into account. Only if they are observed, it is possible to build a high-quality and reliable foundation for housing construction.
That is why it is very important to choose the right foundation that can withstand a lot of weight. They are chosen from slab, strip, columnar and pile foundations. Each of them has its own requirements that must be taken into account. Only if they are observed, it is possible to build a high-quality and reliable foundation for housing construction.
What is considered when choosing a foundation
The definition of a foundation states that it is the load-bearing part of the structure on which the walls rest. It can also be said that the foundation is the main component of the house that affects its durability. And if the foundation is cracked, it means that the choice or construction was wrong.
Cracks will inevitably move to the walls, which will provoke an emergency condition of the whole house. To avoid this, it is necessary to take into account all the factors that affect the strength and durability of the foundation during its construction.
Soil properties. When choosing the types of foundations for a private house, it is the soil that is taken as the main determining factor. Therefore, before starting construction, it is necessary to order geological studies, during which soil samples will be taken by geologists. After studying the composition of the soil, the following will be revealed: the level of groundwater depending on the season, heaving, the possibility of subsidence. It is imperative to take into account the seismicity of the construction area.
Foundation loads. This is also an equally important factor when choosing a foundation. The load depends on the weight of the whole house as a whole (load-bearing walls, partitions, roofing and even furniture, which will be furnished with housing). It is also necessary to take into account the supporting area of the foundation, the pressure on the ground depends on it. The bearing area is defined as the quotient of the weight per bearing area. The lower the pressure, the better, but increasing the width of the foundation entails additional costs.
Depth of placement. When choosing the depth of the laying, it is necessary to take into account the composition of the soil and its moisture content, the maximum negative temperatures in the winter season, the level of groundwater. Swelling of the soil in winter is the main danger for the foundation, because the frozen soil begins to increase in volume, thereby pushing it up. But the greatest danger is that this happens unevenly in different places, which can lead to a break in the foundation. Good waterproofing and drainage system will eliminate cracking and reduce subsidence.
The quality of the material. The main component of the foundation is cement. When choosing it, it is necessary to take into account the shelf life and conditions of storage, as well as the brand that must correspond to the field of application.
In addition to the above factors, one should also take into account the presence of nearby buildings and man-made hazards. Erection of a new foundation increases the load on the ground, which can negatively affect buildings standing nearby. An important factor is the choice of a specialist who will help you choose the type of foundation, taking into account all the requirements and design it correctly.
Types of foundations for a private house
Each of the types of foundation differs in construction technology, characteristics, conditions of use. For residential construction, the following types of foundations for a private house are usually used:
Strip foundation: what is its difference
The design consists of tapes dug into the ground, they take on all the load of the load-bearing elements of the house.
The depth of the strip foundation is determined depending on the materials from which it is being built. The device of the strip foundation for a private house is slightly different depending on the type of the tape itself. There are two main types of strip foundations: monolithic and prefabricated. The first design option is erected immediately on the site, the second is assembled from reinforced concrete blocks. They are produced in factories, then they are brought to the construction site and, with the help of specialized equipment, a prefabricated strip foundation is erected.
A monolithic strip foundation is a reinforced reinforced concrete structure, in terms of reliability and durability it surpasses the prefabricated type, since it is more resistant to deforming loads and practically does not undergo erosion by groundwater.
The prefabricated type of strip foundation is erected not only from blocks, but also from rubble stone – rubble concrete (consists of concrete and boulders). Also, a brick foundation belongs to the prefabricated type; it is used for the construction of houses of no more than five floors.
Strip foundations are classified into two types according to the depth of laying: shallow and deep structures. The sole of shallow strip foundations is placed above the level of freezing of the soil – at a distance of 30–80 cm from its surface. Deep foundations are deepened by 1.5–2 m, that is, the sole is located below the freezing line of the earth.
Tape-type shallow foundations are suitable for the construction of houses of no more than two floors, provided that the soil at the construction site is not prone to heaving. But deep foundations can be used in soils prone to thermal expansion.
The main advantage of strip foundations can be called the relatively low construction costs, with the exception of a prefabricated structure of foundation blocks, since their cost is quite impressive.
Slab foundation for the house
A monolithic slab is a foundation that occupies the entire area of the house. This type of structure is quite costly, because a lot of concrete and reinforcement will be needed for construction, however, large investments are justified by the high reliability of the slab in problem soils.
A monolithic slab is classified as a floating foundation, all loads on it are distributed evenly, which completely eliminates any deformations in a soil prone to horizontal displacement or heaving.
Features of construction: a pit of the required size is pulled out, the base is prepared, a reinforced belt is equipped, after which it is filled with a solution. The slab does not have a large thickness, but it has a fairly good bearing capacity and high strength characteristics.
The thickness of the monolithic slab is made from 30 to 100 cm, depending on the mass of the future house. On such a foundation, it is possible to build heavy structures up to five floors, as well as houses of complex construction and long length. The technology of erecting a monolithic slab as a foundation allows expansion joints to be made around its perimeter, due to which the strength and reliability of the structure increases.
The disadvantage here is that once the slab has been laid, the basement cannot be built. However, this disadvantage can be compensated for by the construction of a basement floor. The foundation is perfect if housing construction will take place on marshy or muddy soil, as well as on artificially formed embankments.
Pile foundations used in residential construction are classified into three types: driven, screw and bored piles. Driven pile construction is used for the construction of heavy concrete and brick houses in problem ground. Driven piles are supports with a length of 5 to 12 m, they are resistant to heavy loads, and in terms of reliability and strength, they practically have no analogues.
For arranging the foundation on bored piles, concreting of wells drilled in the ground will be required. In turn, bored piles are divided into handicraft and industrial elements. The latter are mounted using a mobile drilling rig, and their performance characteristics are almost identical to the driven ones. Handicraft piles (they are analogs of a columnar foundation) imply installation to a depth of 2 to 3 m using hand drills.
Screw piles with a length of 3 to 8 meters are immersed in the ground by screwing. Lightweight wooden structures are built on such foundations – frame houses, cottages made of timber or rounded logs. Foundations on screw piles are chosen when it is necessary to build a house in a short time.
The installation of piles takes several days and about three more days for their strapping.
For bored and driven piles, a slab or tape grillage made of concrete is used for strapping, the screw supports are tied with a grillage from a bar or I-beam, a channel.
The construction of a columnar foundation involves the distribution of supports at a distance of 2-3 m from each other along the entire perimeter of the future house, the pillars are tied with a grillage. The columnar foundation, like the strip foundation, is divided into prefabricated and monolithic. The latter is a concreted asbestos-cement pipe. Prefabricated is erected from blocks or bricks.
The columnar foundation is tied with a grillage from an I-beam or bar. The strapping is necessary to combine the pillars into a single structure, which allows you to evenly distribute the load emanating from the house and prevent them from tipping over.
The columnar foundation is used for the construction of frame houses and other light buildings up to two floors in height. The bearing capacity of a columnar foundation cannot withstand heavy brick and concrete houses. In addition, this type of foundation is not suitable for erection in heaving and moving soils.
Insulation and waterproofing of the foundation
Thermal insulation and waterproofing of the foundation for the construction of private housing should be given special attention. Such work is very important, since the thermal characteristics, a comfortable microclimate in the house and the durability of the building depend on them.
Waterproofing is necessary for any type of foundation because it is constantly exposed to groundwater and melt water. Most often, roll-up glued and liquid coating waterproofing is chosen for protection. The latter includes bitumen-polymer emulsion. When choosing a roll-up waterproofing coating, it is better to give preference to fiberglass, polyester or fiberglass.
For basement insulation they use: penoplex, expanded polystyrene, polyurethane foam, mineral wool, slag, expanded clay.